The Kingdom of Aveh
Aveh was founded by Roni Fatima after the end of the Solaris War in Episode IV. Their territory is mostly desert, but it covers more than half of Ignas's southern reaches, including Lahan, Dajil, and Bledavik. The royal family is closely tied to Nisan, but at present the country itself has severed that connection.
But the desert holds many secrets from the war five hundred years ago, and the Ethos has become almost as strong a presence as Nisan as it commands the excavations of gears and other old technology. This is especially essential during periods of war with Kislev, which has been going strong for almost two hundred years. Aveh's last king wanted to make peace, but that never quite happened.
Social Structure and Leadership
Traditionally, the Fatima dynasty rules Aveh, and has done so for five centuries. Their alliance with the Nisan Holy Mothers is often cemented through marriage, though it isn't clear when that practice started, and they are the only ones who know the secret of the legendary "Fatima Jasper", which is supposed to unlock some ancient treasure left over from the Solaris War. There are certain scrolls in the family's possession that reveal part of the secret, but it seems even they don't know much about their history.
Twelve years before the beginning of the game, most of the Fatima family was slaughtered in Shakhan's coup, and only Bart, Margie (and through his absence, Sigurd) were left alive. The country is now under martial law, with Shakhan at its head, and Solaris pulling his strings from the background. The remnants of the Fatimas are fugitives in their own kingdom, and the alliance with Nisan is broken.
The people are just pawns in this struggle. Most don't seem happy with Shakhan's rule, but none rise up to throw him out. The Solarian presence is less noticable down south in Dajil, where the Ethos reigns instead with its excavation teams and gear repair shops. The province of Norn, at the far south border, is virtually untouched, and Lahan probably doesn't even know it's in Aveh territory. ^^ I think the inhabitants of Norn are mostly tribal, going by the illustrations of Sigurd's family, but that's just speculation.
The ongoing war with Kislev ensured that Aveh always had a large standing army. But Kislev's industrialization gave them the edge, and Aveh was forced to start excavating old gears to strengthen its forces. Sand cruisers are a necessary staple because of Aveh's terrain, and recently Solaris has lent its strength as well. Other than that, there's nothing extraordinary about them at all.